Arab spring has had the effect of inhibiting movement, by constraining the economic and political factors that often drive migration. The strongholds of aq leadershipthe pakistanafghanistan border, somalia, and yemenremained largely untouched by the clashes and political changes, and the effect of the arab spring on potential recruits is difficult to. Owais, rasha, arab media during the arab spring in egypt and tunisia. In october 2011, tunisia held its first free and fair elections, and the. The case of the arab spring, especially tunisia and egypt, showcase these complexities of revolution, both causal and perpetuating. Tunisia has taken the most hopeful direction after its arab spring. The arab spring started in tunisia in late 2010, when a selfimmolation of a street vendor in a provincial town of sidi bouzid sparked mass antigovernment protests. Egypt, libya, syria, and yemen quickly emulated tunisia s example, giving hope to the citizens of those countries that major political and economic transformations were underway. Thi s researc h articl e attempts to scrutinize the nature and cause s of the ara b uprising s which too k people by surpris e globall y throughou t 2011 and int o 2012. The rise and decline of ansar alsharia in libya by aaron y. European external action service is being setup and it is intended to merge parts of the commission with the council secretariat. A year ago, a tunisian fruitseller set himself on fire after being humiliated by a police officer. But elections arent everything, and not everyone has. This report highlights the episodes, which led to the commonly called arab spring that originated in tunisia.
Finally, the isie had to apply new electoral rules. Political campaigning could stir up dissension, and perceptions of unfairness, whether true or not, could create a flash point. Authoritarianism and democratization in the arab w orld, rex brynen et al. Additionally, a variety of explanations have been offered presented by scholars and the media, regarding not only the cause of the arab spring but also. Tunisia and the arab spring overview students begin this lesson by discussing the concept of freedom and the attributes of countries that embrace or deny freedom. The results will hopefully form a foundation, or supplement, for further empiricallybased analysis on the matter.
The initial events of the arab spring occurred in tunisia, where on december 14, 2010, a street vendor named mohammad bouazizi carried out an act of selfimmolation, after a tunisian police officer was alleged to have taken his fruit stand from him, restricting him from selling fruit at his location. The political context remained highly charged and very fluid. In the arab world in late 2010, starting in tunisia and flowering in egypt, a movement of people depressed by their governments, corrupt leaders and a lack of jobs that at once felt safe to take to the streets. Sparked in tunisia on december 17, 2010, a wave of revolutionary contagion spread across the arab world.
The regional revolution saw regime change in tunisia, egypt, and yemen, and civil wars in libya and, at the time of writing this, ongoing in syria. Meanwhile, egyptians rose in revolt as strikes across the country brought daily life to a halt and toppled the government. The twoway the election pits interim president moncef marzouki against challenger beji caid essebsi, who held a post in the ousted. The protesters were angry that their countries did not give them many rights. Since its 2011 revolution, tunisia, birthplace of the arab spring, has faced jihadist attacks that have killed more than 100 security force personnel as well as 59 foreign tourists and 20 tunisian. A new photography exhibition at the king abdulaziz center for world culture ithra in dhahran captures reflections of daily life and society in the arab world. The roots and causes of the 2011 arab uprisings kamal eldin osman salih abstract. Millions of people took to the streets demanding dignity, democracy, and social justice.
Jessie deeter reports, as part of a collaboration with the pulitzer center on. The eu and the arab spring international studies association. Tunisia provides a pertinent case study to assess the link between regulation and state. It describes the chain of events that took place and their geographical spread all over the country. Zulkuf aydin sep 2015, 108 pages arab spring is a political concept that spread widely in the media and academic art publications. Triggers, dynamics and prospects stephan rosiny on 17 december 2010, the selfimmolation of tunisian vegetable vendor mohammed bouazizi sparked the arab spring. The arab spring has fundamentally altered the middle east and north africa mena. Home this guide lists online and print sources for what has become known as the arab spring, the popular revolutionary wave in the middle east and north africa that started in december 2010.
Thus, taking a closer look at how the eu has responded to the arab spring might give us a view of whether and how the latest institutional. This thesis explores several dimensions of domestic and international politics related to the arab spring. If anything is clear about the arab spring, it is that we have much left to understand, especially as the various transitions in the region are still taking place. Mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industry current. A document discussing the tunisian arab spring and how to replicate tunisia across the arab world declared. Tunisia under bourguiba it is impossible to consider recent political events in tunisia without touching on the legacy of habib bourguiba. Arab spring on the states in neighboring regions and how the european unions response to the revolutions in north africa reveals the precarious nature of europes normative power. During the arab spring, experts debated whether the movements and their results would strengthen or weaken al qaeda. Towards an arab approach for the sustainable development goals. Tunisia has also become increasingly important to the eu in connection with counterterrorism and migration issues. He also coordinated international efforts to quickly move military and civilian assets into the region during high tension recovery efforts. Causes of the arab spring causes of the arab spring may be described as following. President of tunisia mohamed moncef marzouki, atlantic council.
Most airlines are 100% government owned in the middle east. Introduction to social movements and social change in january 2011, egypt erupted in protests against the stifling rule of longtime president hosni mubarak. Although tunisia was able to solve the question in few months by changing their leadership, this event and its consequences caused a series of difficulties that obliged the project to be. Within this context, students will then learn about the arab spring through a powerpoint centered discussion, political cartoons, and a series of news articles. Judged in normative terms and on the basis of the corresponding. Tunisia, cradle of arab spring, in historic presidential vote. Yezid sayigh is a senior associate at the carnegie middle east centre in beirut. The cases of tunisia and egypt contributing factors to the.
The integration of syrias conflict with the arab uprisings, 201120 article pdf available in research and politics october 2014 with 1,267 reads. Within a few months, a wave of protest had swept away the despots of tunisia, egypt and libya. Tunisias constituent assembly approves countrys new government after first elections since january revolution. On 17 december 2010 mohamed bouazizi, a street vendor in the tunisian town of sidi bouzid, sets himself on fire in protest at harassment by the police and confiscation of his wares by local officials. The reasons and economic and political consequences of. To start with, tunisias industrial policy was both proactive and characterized by extensive state intervention in the economy. Among the complaints common to all arab spring protests are the established system of. The dramatic series of events known now as the arab spring begins at a very precise moment.
That was at the start is linked to extremist groups have raised concerns of the 1990s in algeria when the military dictatorship in that country allowed free. The arab spring of discontent einternational relations. Egypt, libya, syria, and yemen quickly emulated tunisias example, giving hope to the citizens of those countries that major political and economic transformations were underway. The paper concludes that the union needs a reinforced partnership that merge the various eu policies in the s region into a single strategic partnership with the arab countries. Today, hizbollah participates in the syrian civil war, which has roots outside the israel arab conflict, and is allied with iran, whose ascendancy in the region following the failed 2011 popular uprisings has provoked destabilising responses from gulf states such as saudi arabia and the united arab emirates, especially in yemen. Not technically arab world i guess and perhaps a different situation, but major protests there too now. Parsing the differences between tunisia, egypt, and libya,9 0f or. Of all the countries that took part in the arab spring, tunisia is the one that most deserves the appellation free.
Arab spring in tmisia and egypt 53 in this paper i focus on the arab spring outbreaks in tunisia and egypt and document how disenfranchised youth took advantage of emerging wired technological formats in their respective countries to create mediated communities, networks and identities that decolonized. In tunisia, rates were about % at the beginning of the unrest. It eventually led to a thorough democratisation of the country and to free and democratic elections. A tragedy by noah feldman english may 12th, 2020 isbn. But the divisions and the structural problems in the country were largely produced by the old dictatorship, which could no longer deal with them by state coercion. The arab spring has also caused migrants to change between migration categories. In the 2011 arab spring protests, social media networks played an important role in the rapid disintegration of at least two regimes, tunisia and egypt, while also contributing to sociopolitical mobilization in bahrain and syria. The arab spring began when a young tunisian man set himself on fire to protest government corruption and poor economic conditions. Atlantic council 3 issue brief aftermath o the arab spring in orth africa slipped somewhat below the average over the previous decade to 3. Over the past two years, global attention has shifted to syria and iraq with the rise of jabhat alnusra and the return of the islamic state of iraq and alsham isis. Tunisia provides a relevant case study, as it was at the forefront of the arab spring, because its development strategy was lauded by the international community and predicated on substantial state intervention in the economy, and because it has high quality firm level data in which politically connected firms can be identified. The major issue in the region, however, is that the industry in the arab world is not ready for aviation mergers because of inadequate and unattractive regulations and legislation at a national level.
Upstaging jihad in tunisias impoverished mountains arab news. Yemen on the verge of total state collapse while the global community remains silent schlagworter. The event set off uprisings across north africa and the middle east known as. The bloody outcome of the arab spring was not inevitable, but the systemic crisis that looms for some may be.
Oct 26, 2018 meanwhile, the events of the arab spring in tunisia, libya, and egypt, as well as the oppositions military gains, fueled many western policymakers assumption that syrias day after assad was comingperhaps soon. But none of the entrants in the forthcoming election seems to have the valid and drastic economic plans that will be needed to fulfil the aspirations of tunisians. As usual, a lot of pundits are looking to use the instability in tunisia to indict the arab spring. Highlights from ithras maraina exhibition arab news. Why tunisias arab spring is in turmoil informed comment. Postrevolution tunisia attempts painful transition to democracy the pbs newshour feb. Arab spring simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The arab revolts in egypt, syria and libya have not turned out happily, which leaves tunisia as the last source of potential optimism in the region. There was a definite demonstration effect driving the arab spring, evident from the speed with. As the wave of arab spring revolutions beginning in tunisia and egypt hit. In tunisia, an elected assembly has produced the most liberal political groundrules in. Arab spring used their powers vehemently to crush the demonstrators and consequently the peaceful protesters also became violent.
It set the motion in the socalled arab spring and successfully demonstrated that social and political transformation. Wednesday, january 11, 2012 abstract tunisia triggered a wave of protests that has been sweeping all over the north africa and the middle east since the early 2011. The protests were sparked in part by the revolution in tunisia, and, in turn, they inspired demonstrations throughout the middle east in libya, syria, and beyond. There has already been one arab spring which, however, was largely ignored in europe. Arab media during the arab spring in egypt and tunisia.
The only country to emerge from the arab spring with anything close to a democracy, tunisia has become a beacon of hope for the arab world. Arab spring yemen civil war sunnishia conflict saudi arabiairan houthi saleh international intervention six years after the successful protests of the socalled arab spring leading to the. This paper has been prepared by escwa to inform discussions amongst arab stakeholders at the arab consultative meeting on sdgs organised by escwa, unep, the league of arab states and the government of tunisia tunisia, 1819 november 20. Bourguiba is the founding father of tunisia and led his country from french rule and transformed it into one of. First and foremost, though, brussels hopes that an agreement will contribute to stabilising the only country in the region to have experienced a democratisation process in the course of the socalled arab spring. Mass mobilizations on an unprecedented scale in recent history took place in tunisia, egypt, libya, bahrain, yemen, and syria, and transformed social. Global media journal arabian edition summerfall vol. A comprehensive look at how 2011 shaped the middle east. The perils of industrial policy evidence from tunisia. Several of the speakers observed that many migrant workers in north africa were forced to flee as refugees to third countries.
Widely circulated pdfs of tip sheets explained how to pull off a successful protest. Case studies of tunisia and egypt abdulsattar, tammam omer msc. How assads enemies gave up on the syrian opposition. Tackling the mena regions intersecting conflicts crisis group. We didnt see the arab spring coming because we missed signs of the thaw. The role of information communication technologies in the. Politics, africa, egypt, libya, saudi arabia the arab spring. Pdf the arab spring and its implications on tunisias path to. You can assemble partial page and action method by configure. Before the arab spring, the unseen thaw human rights watch. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, starting with protests in tunisia noueihed, 2011. The arab spring, a prodemocracy uprising which has been sweeping through north africa and the entire arab world since 2010, has been described as a cataclysmic revolutionary wave that has seen the overthrow of numerous political regimes in its wake. Springsip is an addon to spring framework that integrates the javabased nist sip stack into spring as a singleton bean. Our main findings show that, in general, the overall assessment of our group of arab countries competition legislations seems to be broadly average.
In early 2012, foreign ministers and officials from some five dozen nations traveled to newly democratic tunisia for what would be the largestever manifestation of international support for the syrian opposition, then nearly a year into its uprising against president bashar alassads authoritarian government. Make sure to include a summary of the arab winter events in the arab spring page, with arab winter staying the main article. The tunisian revolution, also called the jasmine revolution, was an intensive 28day campaign of civil resistance. Tunisia this guide lists online and print sources for what has become known as the arab spring, the popular revolutionary wave in the middle east and north africa that started in december 2010. In tunisia, the stakes are no less high, because if this experiment fails, a second tier of the old ruling elite would create its own managed. Pdf in the beginning of this decade, the world watched a series of. Yemen on the verge of total state collapse while the global. Nov 06, 2019 2009 january saudi, yemeni alqaeda branches merge to form alqaeda in the arabian peninsula aqap.
Demystifying the arab spring parsing the differences between tunisia, egypt, and libya lisa anderson in tunisia, protesters escalated calls for the restoration of the countrys suspended constitution. Youth unemployment between 1829 ages, which served as the main reason for the revolution, was %30 in 2010 ifad, 2011. The world economic forum repeatedly ranked tunisia as the most competitive economy in africa and the imf as well as the world bank tunisia as a role model for other heralded developing countries. Tunisia, a small open economy at the forefront of the arab spring, provides a very relevant context to examine who reaps the rents from regulation. Pdf a theory of critical junctures for democratization. Ict and social media had little to do with the underlying sociopolitical and socioeconomic factors behind the. The addon provided by this integration of the nist sip stack is easier deployment and testing. Tunisia is wracked by that new phenomenon, of open political struggle. Unfortunately, more forceful tools for a better operational functioning have not been taken up. The common slogan of the protesters throughout arab spring was the people want to bring down the regime aissa, 2012. At the same time, failing to appease the different currents of the protesters might still constitute a severe risk, endangering the very foundations of the hashemite regime and causing violent unrest along jordans ethnic fault lines. Tunisia, and yemen were among the least happy people in the world world bank, 2015. In part because tunisia registered stable positive growth rates hovering around 45% per annum, ben ali also had a fairly favorable external image.400 32 1215 895 366 267 984 1584 698 1485 815 790 557 1278 449 1118 1368 1562 605 187 166 404 1497 1063 577 593 1350 237 1373 113 1105 127 1200 142 1383 138 863 825 954 1215 413 850 198 284 171 1373 966